Python Frameworks

Considering the changing aspect of web development, Python frameworks seem to be gaining in popularity. With its easy-to-read syntax and simple compilation mechanism, this object-oriented, efficient, interpreted, and interactive programming language is simple to learn and effectively decreases development time. The popularity of the Python framework can be traced to this reason.

It comes with several libraries for data analysis, visualization, and manipulation. As a result, it has become the most popular programming language, and it is now seen as the “next step” for professionals.

53.3 % of data scientists prefer this language, according to one of AIM’s studies, because it helps them develop specialized analytics capabilities and data science skills. The Python framework strives for code coverage of 100 percent.

Furthermore, according to the Statista website, python continues to be the most used programming language in 2020.

Image showing popularity of different programming languages

Many developers have chosen the broad framework of Python frameworks to handle the complexities of execution since Python lacks the built-in functions required to accelerate the construction of custom web applications.

Python provides a wide set of frameworks for programmers. Python frameworks are divided into three categories.

  • Full-Stack Frameworks — You can create a full web application with a Full-Stack Framework, from the front-end user interface to the back-end services and databases.
  • Micro Frameworks — Micro-frameworks are small, easy to understand, and simple to implement. Ideally suited to the development of micro-projects. This simply includes the components needed to develop an application.
  • Asynchronous Frameworks — Python framework of the most recent generation. It’s similar to Micro Frameworks, but it can handle several connections at the same time.

Why should I use Python frameworks for mobile app development?

Python is well-known for its readability and ease of use, which can lead to faster development — a significant benefit in the mobile business, where time to market is important.

Furthermore, with the help of this programming language, writing application code is faster and easier. Python is used by a wide range of programmers because it operates on so many different operating systems. Python may be used to construct Android, iOS, and Windows mobile applications.

Common functionalities that a web framework must have

Frameworks are used to provide functionality in their code or through extensions that conduct some of the basic processes required to run web applications.

  • URL Routing
  • Input form validation and handling
  • Provide JSON, HTML, XML, and some other output formats with a templating engine.
  • Storing and retrieving session
  • Security against SQL injection, cross-site scripting (XSS), cross-site request forgery, and other common malicious attacks.
  • Database connection configuration and persistent data manipulation with an object-relational mapper (ORM)

All of the above features do not have to be present in every framework. Frameworks must be capable of handling everything from a single use case to delivering every known web framework capability to every developer. 

Certain frameworks also employ a batteries-included strategy, which has a slew of benefits (extension included). 

Web application framework developers can read, write, and query relational databases in Python rather than SQL with Django. On non-relational (No SQL) databases like MongoDB or Cassandra, this approach necessitates some significant changes.

Things to Know Before You Choose The Right Web Framework

As per Stack Overflow, for online development, 66.7% of developers prefer using Python as their programming language. 

But, there are a few factors that businesses should think about before selecting a web development framework. First and foremost, it must consider the scope and complexity of the coding method. 

A full-stack framework will be the best choice if you plan to build a massive structure with a lot of requirements and features. Microframeworks, on the other hand, should be considered if a small and simple app product is being developed.

Let’s see what the top most Python Frameworks available are: 

Top 20 Python Frameworks for App Development: 

Django

Image showing django Python Framework

Type: Full-stack Framework

Django is a high-level Python Web framework that promotes rapid development and simple, practical design. It’s built by professional developers to take care of a lot of the hassles of Web development so you can focus on developing your app instead of reinventing the wheel. It’s open-source and free. The Django framework adheres to the DRY principle (Don’t Repeat Yourself).

Django was created to assist users in getting their applications from concept to completion as quickly as possible. The tool takes security seriously and helps developers avoid a variety of frequent security blunders.

Key Features-

  • Object Relational Mapper — ORM
  • MVC architecture
  • Template system
  • Built-in lightweight webserver
  • URL design
  • Fast development
  • Free and thorough documentation

Instagram, DropBox, Pinterest, Spotify, and Udemy are among the companies that use Django.

Flask

Image showing Flask framework

Type: Micro Framework

Flask is a WSGI web application framework that is lightweight. It’s built to make getting started simple and quick, with the flexibility to scale up to more complex projects. It started off as a basic interface for Werkzeug and Jinja and has since grown into one of the most popular Python frameworks.

Flask provides guidance but does not impose any dependencies or project structure. Developers are free to create backup infrastructure in whatever way they see fit. It was, however, created with open applications in mind.

Key Features-

  • Unicode-based
  • HTTP request handling
  • RESTFul request dispatching
  • Cookies support for client-side sessions
  • Plugins for ORM
  • Built-in debugger
  • Jinja2 templating

Netflix, Reddit, Lyft, and Trivago are among the companies that use Flask.

Tornado

Image showing tornado framework

Type: Asynchronous Framework

Tornado is a FriendFeed-developed Python web framework and asynchronous networking tool. Tornado can expand to tens of thousands of open connections using non-blocking network I/O, making it ideal for lengthy polling, WebSockets, and other applications that require a long-lived connection to each user.

Key Features-

  • Real-time services
  • Web templating
  • Non-blocking HTTP Client
  • 3rd party authentication and authorization support
  • Translation and localization support
  • High-quality performance

FaceBook, Delivery Hero, IMO, and HENNGE are among the companies that use Tornado.

Web2py

Image showing WEB2PY framework

Type: Full-Stack Framework

Free open source full-stack framework for rapidly developing database-driven web-based applications that are fast, scalable, secure, and portable. It comes with a web-based personal IDE that includes a one-click development tool, code editor, and debugger.

Key Features-

  • Backward compliance
  • Follows MVC architecture
  • Role-based access control
  • Data security that prevents vulnerabilities
  • Support for internalization
  • Built-in support for cookies, sessions, and HTTP handling
  • Cross-platform compatibility

Vidjil, Sarapis, and Groupthink are among the companies that use Web2Py.

Bottle

Image showing Bottle framework

Type: Micro Framework

Bottle is a Python WSGI micro web framework that is quick, simple, and lightweight. Other than the Python Standard Library, it is delivered as a single file module with no dependencies.

Key Features-

  • Lightweight and minimalism
  • Built-in HTTP server
  • Plugins for different databases
  • Support for WSHI/HTTP Servers
  • Provides request dispatching routes having URL parameter support
  • Access to cookies, form data, file uploads, and other HTTP metadata

Sotong Kitchen, Scommerce, and Net Power & Light are among the companies that use Bottle.

CherryPy

Image showing CherryPy framework

Type: Micro Framework

CherryPy is a pythonic HTTP framework with an object-oriented approach. CherryPy has been around for almost ten years and has shown to be extremely fast and stable. Many sites, from the simplest to the most demanding, use it in creation. It enables users to create web applications in the same way that they would any other Python object-oriented program.

Key Features-

  • Runs on android
  • HTTP/1.1-Compliant WSGI thread-pooled web server
  • It’s simple to run many HTTP servers at the same time.
  • Developers and deployers alike will benefit from this powerful configuration system.
  • A system of plug-ins that can be customized.
  • Caching, encoding, sessions, authentication, static content, and many other features are built-in.
  • Support for profiling, coverage, and testing is built-in.
  • Python 2.7, 3.5, PyPy, Jython, and Android are all supported.

TECHO, Panopta, and Rain are among the companies that use CherryPy (A tribute to the Beatles)

Sanic

Image showing Sanic framework

Type: Asynchronous Framework

Sanic is a fast-loading asynchronous web framework and web server for Python 3.5+. Sanic was created by MagicStack and is built on its uvloop event loop, which replaces Python asyncio’s default event loop, making it extremely fast.

Key Features-

  • Class-based views
  • Enables reading and writing of cookies
  • Decorators support
  • Allows different types of logging (access and error logs)
  • Support blueprint for sub routing within an application
  • Plugin support

Herren, WIREWAX, and SciFin Technologies are among the companies that use Sanic.

Pyramid

Image showing pyramid framework

Type: Full-Stack Framework

Pyramid makes creating web apps simple. With this “hello world” rudimentary request/response web app, you can start small. This could take you a long way, especially if you’re still learning. Pyramid provides several capabilities that make creating complex software easier as your application expands.

Pyramid is a lightweight web framework written in Python 2 and 3. Pyramid only includes the essential tools for nearly all online applications, such as mapping URLs to code, security, and providing static assets, such as JavaScript and CSS files. 

With packaging tools, virtual environments, logging, and other features, Pyramid encourages traditional Python development techniques.

The following are some of the characteristics:-

  • Access control records can be configured and verified more easily, thanks to security provisions.
  • The Pyramid Traversal framework for allocating URLs to code, which aids the creation of the RESTful API, is another interesting element to explore.

Key Features-

  • Lightweight
  • Function decorators
  • Single file application
  • URL generation
  • Flexible authentication and authorization
  • Renderers and predicates
  • Templating and asset specifications

AdRoll, BraveWords, charte.ca, and DiscNW are some of the companies that use Pyramid.

TurboGears

Image showing TurboGears framework

Type: Full-Stack Framework

TurboGears is a full-stack framework for Python that is data-driven and open-sourced. Developers can use the framework to create data-driven web apps quickly.

TurboGears 2 is based on the experience of various next-generation web frameworks, including TurboGears 1, Django, and Rails, to name a few. All of these frameworks had limits that we found difficult, and TG2 was created to address those shortcomings.

The following are some of its characteristics:-

  • understandable templating in addition to a versatile and strong ORM.
  • To construct programs that require database connections
  • The full-stack framework makes use of components like Genshi, Repoze, SQLAlchemy, and WebOb.
  • Every feature is provided as a function decorator.
  • Support for multiple databases.
  • Command-line utilities that are easily accessible.
  • Integration of the MochiKit JavaScript library.
  • PasteScript templates and MVC architecture.
  • ToscaWidgets makes frontend design and server deployment easier to coordinate.

Key Features-

  • MVC-style architecture
  • PasteScript templates
  • Multi-database support
  • Function decorator
  • Pylon as a web server support
  • Front-facing WSGI-based servers
  • Validation support with FormEncode

Emtec Inc and OnShift, Inc are two companies that use TurboGears.

Hug

Image showing hug framework

Type: Full-Stack Framework

Simplify API development across many interfaces dramatically. Hug allows you to design and develop your API once, then expose it in any way your clients require. Hug is the quickest and most modern way to construct Python3 APIs, whether locally, over HTTP, or via the command line.

The Python framework makes API creation easier by providing a variety of interfaces. Hug uses Cython for compilation and consumes resources only when needed to improve performance to the next level.

Key Features-

  • Annotation driven validation
  • Follows ‘Write-Once, Use Anywhere’
  • Built-in version management
  • Support for automatic documentation
  • It can be used as a Python library
  • Compliance with Cython

Owlin is a company that uses Hug.

Falcon

Image showing Falcon framework

Falcon is a high-performance Python web framework for building backends and microservices for large-scale apps. Falcon apps work with any WSGI or ASGI server and are compatible with Python 3.5 and PyPy 3.5.

Falcon apps work with any WSGI or ASGI server and are compatible with Python 3.5 and PyPy 3.5. 

The following are some of the characteristics:-

  • A codebase that is highly optimized and extensible.
  • Falcon uses URI templates, REST-inspired resource classes, and other techniques to provide intuitive routing.
  • Through request and response classes, it makes it simple to access headers and contents.
  • Allows for quick unit testing using WSGI helpers, as well as DRY request processing using middleware components and hooks.

Kivy 

Image showing Kivy framework

Kivy is an open-source Python toolkit allowing rapid creation of applications with new user interfaces, such as multi-touch applications. It’s cross-platform, GPU-accelerated, and enterprise-ready. Kivy is dependent on a number of Python libraries, including GStreamer, PIL, and Cairo, among others.

Kivy’s basic principle is to allow developers to create an app once and deploy it across all devices, making code reusable and deployable and enabling quick and easy interaction design and prototyping.

The following are some of the characteristics:-

  • Support for a wide range of input devices, including the mouse, keyboard, TUIO, and OS-specific multi-touch events.
  • Only OpenGL ES 2 is used in this visual library.
  • A wide choice of widgets with multi-touch capability is available.
  • Kv is an intermediate language that may be used to quickly create customized widgets.

BeeWare

Image showing BeeWare framework

 BeeWare is a set of Python tools and frameworks for creating and delivering native applications. A developer can use this set of tools and libraries to create cross-platform native GUI Python apps.

The following are included in BeeWare: –

  • Toga is a Python-based, OS-independent, cross-platform GUI toolkit.
  • Briefcase is a tool for packaging Python programs into distributable artifacts that may be distributed to end-users.
  • Rubicon ObjC is a Python package that allows you to work with Objective C libraries on iOS and macOS.
  • Rubicon Java is a Python package that allows you to interact with Java libraries.
  • Python pre-compiled versions can be used on platforms that don’t have official Python installers.

 Growler

Image showing Growler Framework

Growler is an Asynchronous framework. Its inspiration came from the NodeJS and the Express/Connect frameworks. It has a micro web framework built on the asyncio library in Python. 

Growler, unlike other traditional Python frameworks, handles queries through middleware technologies rather than the framework itself. 

Growler was developed to simply learn how to use the asyncio library because it’s the most basic level. It is now a preferred choice in Python frameworks for easily and quickly creating complex apps.

Key features:-

  • It is easy to see program flow in Growler. This is due to lack of required callbacks and proper try/except blocks
  • Support for many of open-source packages
  • It employs decorators for writing clean, reusable code
  • It has the Ziapp module. This module allows zipping an entire application into a single executable file.

 MorePath

Image showing Morepath Framework

The microframework MorePath is also known as the “Super Powered Python Web Framework.” It has a minimum setup footprint. It was created with the goal of getting the majority of the typical use cases up and running as quickly as possible. This includes the addition of many popular Python data structures into RESTful Web Services. 

MorePath is a model-driven web framework with a lot of flexibility. The Python framework has the ability to automatically convert the paths defined in the framework into links, resulting in apps with the cleanest URLs.

Key Features:-

  • All views are generic. You can Reuse views in views
  • It has the tools needed to develop RESTful web services
  • It is simple to create a generic user interface
  • Extensible with an easy, simple, and universal extension and override mechanism
  • Simple, flexible, and powerful permissions

AIOHTTP

AIOHTTP is a Framework for asynchronous operations. It is a Python framework that largely relies on capabilities from Python 3.5+, such as async and awaits. The Python framework is an asynchronous framework since it makes use of Python’s asyncio package. AIOHTTP is not just a server web framework, but it can also be used as a client framework. It has a request object and a router that allows inquiries to be routed to functions that have been written to handle them.

Key features:-

  • It helps build the views effectively
  • Middlewares support
  • Pluggable routing
  • Signals
  • Offers support for both Server WebSockets and Client WebSockets without any Callback

 Pylons Frameworks  

Image showing Pylons framework

It is a Python-based open-source framework. It focuses on quick application development. It was created by using the best components and properties of several languages, including Perl, Python, and Ruby. 

Despite being in maintenance mode, numerous developers continue to use the Pylons framework because of its ability to provide a very flexible web development structure. The full-stack framework makes considerable use of WSGI to facilitate reusability (Web Server Gateway Interface).

Key highlights:-

  • HTML form generation and validation
  • Routes
  • Text-based templating
  • URL dispatch
  • URL mapping based on Routes configuration via WebHelpers

 Giotto

Giotto is a Python application framework based on the Model View Controller architecture. Giotto isolates Model, View, and Controller parts in order to allow web designers, web developers, and system administrators to work independently. 

Giotto comes with several controller modules that let users build programs on top of the web, IRC (Internet Relay Chat), and the command line.

Key highlights:-

  • Automatic URL routing
  • Database persistence with SQLAlchemy
  • Extremely succinct code
  • Functional CRUD patterns
  • Generic views and models and 
  • Inbuilt cache with support for Memcache and Redis. It also has an API available for extending support for other engines.
  • Jinja2 for HTML templates
  • Many pluggable controllers
  • RESTful interface with normal “browser POST” CRUD site

 CubicWeb

Image showing CubicWeb Framework

CubicWeb is a semantic, open-source, free-to-use Python-based web framework. It is developed and maintained by Logilab. CubicWeb demands that the data model be defined in order to construct a working application based on it. 

CubicWeb uses cube instead of other popular Python frameworks that use separate views and models. With the help of a database, a web server, and some configuration files, many cubes are then connected together to create an instance.

Key features:-

  • Web Ontology Language and Resource Description Framework) support
  • Components that can be reused
  • Security workflows
  • Simplifies data-related queries with Relational Query Language embedding
  • Support for multiple databases

Pycnic

Image showing pycnic framework

This microframework is object-oriented. It is thought to be the most efficient for creating JSON-based APIs. The compact, stand-alone framework that is specialized for JSON-based APIs is able to compete with the big boys. Pycnic has a small footprint and is therefore quick because it only develops Web APIs.

Key highlights:-

  • It has built-in error handling
  • It is capable of handling JSON-based requests
  • Handles routing
  • Offers support for cookies

How can Python be used to create apps on mobile platforms like Android, iOS, and Windows?

While Android and iOS do not support interpreted code, you may develop your mobile app in Python and then cross-compile it for Android or iOS using a Python mobile app framework like Kivy or BeeWare.

Can I develop Windows 10 apps in Python?

It depends on the nature of operating system integration you want, but if you just want to easily construct a GUI program that can interface with the user and conduct some basic operating system or network interaction, this is the way to go.

However, because wxWidgets provides a mechanism, platform-agnostic OS integration, it is likely to depend on how much wxWidgets functionality is available through wxPython.

Alternatively, you could just use Python to connect your GUI application to the rest of the functionality, which might be done using any other Python modules (or your own).

Conclusion

The graphical user interface, or GUI, is one of the three basic cornerstones of any application, with security and performance being the other two. Maintaining the correct balance between these three aspects will help you create a user experience that is intuitive and smooth.

We can’t emphasize enough how important it is to have a user interface that is both minimalistic and efficient.

Python is an interesting programming language to learn in 2020 due to its growing popularity, easy learning curve, and broad use in the real world. The next difficulty for beginners is to develop the user interface after they have a good handle on the fundamentals of Python programming. 

Fortunately, we’ve gathered a list of the top 10 Python frameworks for creating visually stunning yet highly intuitive user interfaces for modern applications.

Click here to read about Web Development With Python – Most Important Things You Must Know

 

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