Written by on CSS Wizardry.

Every developer and designer is different; they have they own skills, interests,
and abilities. Similarly, every project is different: where one project might
require the utmost focus on performance, the next might have a considerable need
for visually striking designs and interactions. While this variety keeps things
fresh and exciting, there comes a problem when a developer’s skill-set doesn’t
match the requirements of the project, or when teams approach new projects the
same way as the last despite the requirements being fundamentally different.

This awkward matrix of skills against requirements can often lead to problems:
developers can end up over-engineering simple marketing sites, and designers
begin striving for pixel-perfection on quick-and-dirty internal dashboards that
just don’t need it. This can lead to internal friction and arguments between
team members, but also to excessive cost—spending three days writing the most
extensible and elegant code for a campaign site that will be live for a few days
is almost impossible to justify.

I tend to, mainly, work with product and app companies; e-commerce, SaaS, etc.
These are companies where longevity and performance are usually paramount, and
my background in these kinds of environments lends itself very well to helping
organisations like these build bigger, faster, and more resilient products.

As well as companies like these, I also work with more traditional client
services agencies. These companies still suffer the same problems, but in subtly
different ways: they don’t necessarily need the most maintainable or
long-lasting code, but they do need to scale and standardise workflows and
approaches over various projects at the same time.

Here we have a situation where a developer who’s more inclined to optimise for
scale and speed needs to work in an environment where the actual projects
themselves might need to focus more on visual treatments and engagement, and
much less on architecture and maintainability. This is a prevalent problem
across a lot of companies I work with: how do we get the same development team
to change their approach when the requirements of the project change,
potentially going against their skill-set or even instincts?

An exercise I came up with a couple of years ago aims to reconcile these issues:
Relative Requirements. The aim with Relative Requirements is to take all of
the possible traits a project may have (performance, accessibility, visual
design, etc.) and give them a relative grading against each other. For example,
you may have a project where visual design is paramount, so you assign that four
points. Perhaps, on the same project, performance is less important, so we might
award that just three points. We might never need to use this project again, so
we decide that we should assign zero time and effort to making the code

Trait Score
Performance 3
Maintainability 0
Usability 4
Delighters 4
Visuals 4
Accessibility 3

Once we have all of our traits graded against each other, we can plot them on
a radar chart which shows us, relatively, which aspects of the build might be
more important than the others.

Relative Requirements
Radar chart showing the relative importance of Performance, Maintainability,
Usability, Delighters, Visuals, and Accessibility, with a weighting toward
a visual-centric project.

Now, at a glance, anyone can see what the team deem to be the most important
traits for this particular project.

Choosing and Grading Your Traits

The traits I outlined above are merely examples: when you draw up your own
relative requirements you may end up with a few more of a few less, and that’s
fine. The important bit is that the traits are well defined and understood by
everybody involved the process. To quickly define the traits I have used:

  • Performance: How important is it that this site is fast? For e-commerce
    sites, it’s probably very important. For marketing or campaign sites, perhaps
    less so.
  • Maintainability: Does this codebase need to last a long time? Do we hope
    to be adding to it in five years time?
  • Usability: Is this the kind of site where we expect continued use?
    Something like Basecamp or Google Sheets needs to be very usable; a site
    promoting a new movie maybe needs to consider this a little less.
  • Delighters: How important are subtle animations and UI treatments that are
    absolutely not vital, but do make users smile? These are nice to have, but
    most products can probably survive without them.
  • Visuals: How important is striking visual design? How important is
    pixel-perfection? For Gov.uk, striking visuals are
    clearly less important than usability, but if we’re building a site to promote
    a luxury hotel, we need to be focusing on lavish design.
  • Accessibility: Of course, accessibility it always important—we should
    always be building accessible sites and applications—but accessibility still
    needs to be subjected to the same grading as everything else.

Feel free to use these traits as-is, or use them as a basis for your own.

N.B. These requirements are relative, which means a score of
2 doesn’t mean something is unimportant, it just means it’s less important
than something else. The only way to signify that a trait is truly unimportant
is to give it a zero.


My advice here is that you should involve as many people as necessary, but as
few people as possible. It’s vital that key stakeholders and the designers and
developers expected to build the project are present, but inviting too many
people brings the risk of prolonged and dragged out discussions.

You could even keep this exercise private to the development team, opting not to
involve the client at all. The main idea of Relative Requirements is to get the
team to agree on the importance of certain aspects of the build, so it could be
kept completely private to them.


One clear problem that we could run into is the urge to just Make everything
a 5!
Of course, this completely undermines the whole exercise, so I advise
setting up a budget that doesn’t allow this to happen. As a general rule, the
amount of points you can spend is defined by: number of traits × 3.
This means that if we have five traits, we have a total of 15 points to spend.
If we have six traits, our budget is 18 points, and so on.

The 3 in this equation is derived from the median
that any
trait could have. What this means is that, if we really wanted to, we could
award all of our traits a 3 out of 5, allocating all of our budget equally:

Relative Requirements
Radar chart showing what would happen if we decided every trait has equal

Doing this would also undermine the whole process, but starting from here we
could begin pulling one trait further out, and decide which traits have to move
inward to compensate.

Reading the Chart

Try to arrange your traits in such a way that the resulting shape of the chart
has meaning. You’ll notice that I’ve grouped ‘similar’ traits together, which
means a graph that has a heavy weighting to a specific region indicates
a general theme: a top- to top-right heavy chart shows we might need our more
analytical designers and developers on this project. A bottom- to bottom-left
heavy chart shows us that we might need our more creative designers and

Relative Requirements
Heavy weighting toward performance and maintainability likely means
you want key architectural developers involved on the project.
Relative Requirements
A potential chart for a government service redesign: accessibility
and usability are essential; performance is important, as we have to serve
a large and diverse audience who might not have access to powerful devices and
fast connections; visual design is somewhat important, but not at the cost of
over-designing—we want to focus on a usable design rather than a striking

Revisiting and Reassessing

It is important that these Relative Requirement charts don’t become
a set-it-and-forget-it part of your process: they should be revisited and
revised as your project matures.

For example, you might be embarking on an MVP for a potential product: your
first chart might put a heavy focus on on usability and visuals, medium on
performance, and less so on maintainability (the codebase might get thrown in
the bin if the project is not deemed viable) and delighters (they’re not
appropriate for an MVP).

Relative Requirements
Radar chart showing a theoretical MVP project.

If your MVP proves successful, you’re likely to draw up a new strategy for
development after this point: you’ll no doubt have a lot of tech
to clear,
and your focus will shift from quick proofs of concept to a more permanent
codebase. At this point, you’ll reassess your Relative Requirement and draw up
a new chart.

Relative Requirements
Radar chart showing a change in focus from an MVP to a more
long-lived project.

This change signals a shift in priorities, and now might be a good time to set
your more creative designers and developers on newer projects, and draft in your
more senior or architectural staff to refactor and scale the MVP into a more
sustainable project. Again, a key skill here is to be able to quickly read the
shapes of your charts in order to, at a glance, ascertain what that general form


When implemented effectively, there are a number of advantages and benefits to
this model.

The first one is that resource coordinators (project managers, scrum masters,
etc.) can quickly see which designers and developers might be best suited to
a particular body of work. Don’t assign your senior architects to a highly
creative marketing campaign; similarly, don’t put your most creative developer
on a long-running SaaS product. You’re unlikely to get the best out of either
person, and they’ll likely resent doing the kind of work they’re least suited

Another much more useful outcome is conflict resolution. Time and time again
I’ve seen design and development teams in arguments because a front-end
developer hasn’t implemented animations exactly as intended, or a designer is
slowing the process by fighting for pixel-perfection on a project that just
doesn’t require it, or a developer is over engineering some JavaScript in
pursuit of theoretical purity.

By deciding what we value up-front, we have an agreement that we can look back
on in order to help us settle these conflicts and get us back on track again. If
we’re working on a short-term marketing campaign, another developer could
legitimately call me out if I’ve wasted half a day perfecting the BEM naming
used across the project.

Relative Requirements remove the personal aspect of these disagreements and
instead focuses on more objective agreements that we made as a team.

Amazing Things Can Happen

I’ll leave you with this:

I ran this exercise with some designers, developers, and members of the business
at a large UK fashion retailer (if you live in the UK, you’ve heard of them). My
worry was that, as it was a fashion site, we’d be pulling fours and fives on the
visual treatments and dropping performance and accessibility to ones or even
zeroes. Then something remarkable happened:

Well, our brand is all about providing affordable and non-nonsense clothing to
shoppers as quickly and effectively as possible, so if we hit high on
performance and usability, we’re perfectly on brand. Let’s prioritise those.

This was a really reassuring moment, and the site continues to be one of the
fastest in the e-commerce space.

Try it out. Let me know how you get on.

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